Every year the finance minister presents the budget of the country in the Lok Sabha. The budget explains how the government is planning to collect taxes or earn through other sources and how the government is going to spend the same. Governments in developing countries, usually spend more than the earnings by borrowing funds from the market or other countries, as higher spending means better public infrastructure and other schemes for development in the country. The budget papers contain details about how the government performed in past years, its estimate for ongoing years and budgets for next year. During the budget speech, the finance minister talks about the highlights of his budget explaining the key developments that the Government intends to bring, the expected deficit as a result of spending and sources of borrowing and the changes in the tax structures and legal provisions to implement the budget. The Government made some key announcements concerning agriculture, rural development, health and education –

  1. Digital infrastructure – Digital public infrastructure will be built for farmer-centric solutions such as crop planning and health, improved access to farm inputs, credit, and insurance, crop estimation, market intelligence, etc.
  2. Agriculture Accelerator Fund – Agriculture Accelerator Fund will be set up to encourage agri-startups to bring innovative and affordable solutions for challenges faced by farmers.
  3. Cooperative societies – 63,000 Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS) will be computerised with a budgeted outlay of INR 2,516 crore and model bye-laws will be formulated for them. A national cooperative database is also being built for mapping cooperative societies. Massive decentralised storage capacities are being planned to help farmers store their produce and realize remunerative prices, and the same will also support multipurpose cooperative societies, primary fishery societies and dairy cooperative societies.
  4. Productivity of the cotton crop – Through Public Private Partnerships (PPP), a cluster will be developed for long-staple cotton crops, to collaborate with farmers, the state and industry for input supplies, extension services, and market linkages.
  5. Atmanirbhar Horticulture Clean Plant Program – To boost the availability of disease-free, quality planting material for high-value horticultural crops, with a budgeted outlay of INR 2,200 crore.
  6. Agriculture Credit – The credit target increased to INR 20 lakh crore with a focus on animal husbandry, dairy and fisheries.
  7. Fisheries – A new sub-scheme of PM Matsya Sampada Yojana with a budgeted outlay of INR 6,000 crore will be launched.
  8. Global hub for Millets – India is the largest producer and second largest exporter of ‘Shree Anna’ i.e. jowar, ragi, bajra, kuttu, ram dana, kangni, kutki, kodo, Sheena, and sama. To make India a global hub for the same, the Indian Institute of Millet Research, Hyderabad will be developed as the Centre of Excellence.
  9. Mission Karmayogi – Capacity-building plans for civil servants and an integrated online training platform, iGOT Karmayogi, will provide learning opportunities to government employees.
  10. Securities market – To build the capacity of functionaries and professionals in the securities market, SEBI will develop, regulate, maintain and enforce norms and standards for education in the National Institute of Securities Markets and also award degrees, diplomas and certificates.
  11. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 4.0 – 30 Skill India International Centres will be set up across different states. Now new age courses such as coding, AI, robotics, mechatronics, IOT, 3D printing, drones, and soft skills will also be covered.
  12. Skill India Digital Platform – A unified Skill India Digital platform will be launched for formal skilling, linking with employers, and entrepreneurship schemes.
  13. National Apprenticeship Promotion – Under a National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme, stipend support will be provided to 47 lakh youth in 3 years.
  14. Nursing colleges – 157 new nursing colleges will be established in co-location with the existing 157 medical colleges established since 2014.
  15. Sickle Cell Anaemia – A mission to eliminate Sickle Cell Anaemia by 2047 is being launched which will include awareness creation, universal screening in affected tribal areas, and counselling.
  16. Medical research – Select ICMR Labs will be made available for public research, to private college faculty and private sector research teams
  17. Pharma innovation – A new programme to promote research and innovation in pharmaceuticals will be taken up through centres of excellence.
  18. Courses for medical devices – Dedicated multidisciplinary courses for medical devices will be supported in existing institutions
  19. Teachers’ training – The District Institutes of Education and Training will be developed as vibrant institutes of excellence to enhance teacher training through pedagogy, curriculum transaction, continuous professional development, dipstick surveys, and ICT implementation.
  20. National Digital Library for Children and Adolescents – A National Digital Library for children and adolescents will be set up. Additionally, the National Book Trust, Children’s Book Trust and other sources will be encouraged to provide and replenish non-curricular titles.
  21. Aspirational Districts and Blocks – Aspirational Blocks Programme is being relaunched to cover 500 blocks for developing essential government services such as health, nutrition, education, agriculture, water resources, financial inclusion, skill development, and basic infrastructure.
  22. Pradhan Mantri PVTG Development – Pradhan Mantri PVTG Development Mission with a budgeted outlay of INR 15,000 crore over the next 3 years will focus on providing basic public facilities to Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)
  23. Eklavya Model Residential Schools – 38,800 teachers and support staff will be recruited for 740 Eklavya Model Residential Schools over the next 3 years
  24. Drought Prone Regions – Karnataka will receive the assistance of INR 5,300 crore for the Upper Bhadra Project to develop sustainable irrigation and surface tanks.
  25. PM Awas Yojana – The outlay of ‘PM Awas Yojana’ will be enhanced by 66 per cent to INR 79,000 crore.
  26. Bharat Shri – Bharat Shared Repository of Inscriptions (Bharat Shri) will be set up in a digital museum with the digitization of one lakh ancient inscriptions in the first stage.
  27. Poor prisoners – For poor persons in prisons, financial assistance will be provided for penalty and bail amounts.