The Ministry of Electronic & Information Technology (MeitY) recently issued an advisory that has sparked debates regarding the regulation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in India. The advisory introduces compliances aimed at ensuring the fairness, reliability, and accountability of AI systems. The initial advisory in March 2024 mandated prior government approval for AI tools. This caused controversy. MeitY has, therefore, issued a revised advisory removing the approval requirement but stressing the points mentioned. However, opinions on whether these rules are good or bad are divided, with stakeholders expressing various concerns and perspectives.

What is the latest advisory?

Firstly, the scope of the advisory and its implications for businesses have been a point of contention. The advisory primarily targets intermediaries, such as internet service providers and social media platforms, requiring them to adhere to specific guidelines when using or deploying AI models. This includes ensuring that AI systems do not exhibit bias or discrimination, obtaining explicit permission for under-tested or unreliable AI, and embedding identifiers in outputs to mitigate the spread of misinformation or deepfakes. However, the ambiguity surrounding the definition of significant platforms and whether startups are exempt from these regulations has confused businesses.

While some argue that the rules provide much-needed oversight and accountability for AI technologies, others fear that the compliance burden could stifle innovation, particularly for smaller enterprises. Moreover, the timing and enforcement of the rules have also raised concerns. The advisory comes amidst a broader discourse on AI governance in India, following the enactment of the Digital Personal Data Protection Act and the drafting of the Digital India Bill. While proponents view these regulations as necessary steps towards safeguarding privacy and addressing modern challenges, critics caution against hasty implementations that could hinder technological advancements. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the rules in achieving their intended goals remains uncertain.

While the principles of fairness, reliability, and accountability are crucial for responsible AI deployment, the feasibility of enforcing these principles through regulatory measures is debatable. Some argue that self-governance or reactive governance models may be more appropriate for addressing issues such as bias and discrimination in AI systems, as they allow for flexibility and adaptation to evolving technologies. On the other hand, concerns about misinformation and deepfakes highlight the need for proactive measures to protect users and mitigate potential harm. By holding technology firms accountable for the outputs of their AI systems and promoting transparency with end-users, policymakers aim to reinforce positive human values and ensure the responsible use of AI.

How have other countries approached AI?

The debate surrounding India’s latest AI rules reflects broader discussions on the balance between innovation and regulation in the digital age. While there are valid concerns about the potential impact on businesses and the feasibility of enforcement, there is also recognition of the need to address emerging challenges such as misinformation and privacy breaches. Moving forward, policymakers must carefully consider these concerns and strive to develop pragmatic and effective AI governance frameworks that promote innovation while protecting societal interests. The regulation of Artificial Intelligence has become a pressing issue globally, leading to various approaches and strategies by different countries and organizations.

The UN passed a resolution highlighting the risks associated with AI systems and the need for responsible use to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It emphasized the potential adverse impact of AI on the workforce, particularly in developing and least-developed countries, urging collaborative action to address these challenges. The EU introduced the AI Act, which categorizes AI systems into four risk categories: unacceptable, high, limited, and minimal risks. It imposes an absolute ban on applications that threaten citizens’ rights, such as manipulation of human behaviour and mass surveillance, while allowing exemptions for law enforcement purposes with prior authorization. Meanwhile, China focuses on promoting AI innovation while implementing safeguards against potential harm to social and economic goals. Its regulatory framework addresses content moderation, personal data protection, and algorithmic governance, emphasizing security, ethics, and user consent. On the other hand, the UK adopted a principled and context-based approach to AI regulation, emphasizing mandatory consultations with regulatory bodies and technical expertise enhancement. It employs a decentralized and soft law approach, aiming to bridge regulatory gaps and better regulate complex technologies.

Should Artificial intelligence development be regulated?

There’s a strong debate about regulating AI development, with arguments on both sides. AI systems can be misused for malicious purposes like spreading misinformation, creating deepfakes, or even controlling autonomous weapons. Regulation could help ensure AI development prioritizes safety and security. AI algorithms can reflect and amplify societal biases, leading to discriminatory practices. Regulations could promote fairer AI development that minimizes bias. Complex AI models can be like black boxes, making it hard to understand their decision-making process. Regulations could require developers to make AI models more transparent and explainable. AI development often relies on vast amounts of data, raising concerns about data privacy and security. Regulations could protect user data and prevent misuse. On the other hand, overly strict regulations could slow down AI research and development, hindering potential benefits. The field of AI is constantly evolving, making it difficult to write future-proof regulations. Rigid rules might not adapt well to new advancements. AI development is happening worldwide. Regulations in one country might not be effective if others don’t follow suit. Many governments and organizations are actively considering or implementing AI regulations. The European Union’s AI Act is one of the most comprehensive attempts so far. The question of regulating AI development is complex. While regulations are crucial for addressing potential risks and promoting ethical AI, they should be designed carefully to avoid stifling innovation.  The ideal approach might involve a balance between industry self-regulation, government oversight, and international cooperation.


  1. Times of India – The Indian AI paradox: Managing innovation and regulation in AI Governance
  2. The Economic Times – New AI law will guard rights of content creators
  3. The Hindu – Different approaches to AI regulation