Greenvissage explains, Are RBI’s new rules a shot in the arm for stability or a blow to infrastructure growth?

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has unveiled a fresh set of guidelines for project finance, sparking debates within the financial sector and raising questions about its potential impact on infrastructure development. The proposed regulations come at a time when the RBI aims to mitigate risks inherent in financing infrastructure projects, notorious for their prolonged gestation periods and susceptibility to delays. The central bank’s focus is on fortifying the financial health of such projects, safeguarding lenders against potential defaults that could arise during the lengthy construction phases.

Under the new framework, banks are mandated to allocate a larger portion of their funds, up to 5%, as a cushion during the construction phase of infrastructure projects. This measure is designed to shield lenders from financial losses should projects encounter unforeseen challenges later on. The regulations impose stricter deadlines for project completion, with projects classified as non-performing assets if they surpass a six-month delay beyond the stipulated timeline. This represents a departure from previous leniency towards project timelines. In consortium lending arrangements, where multiple banks participate in financing a single project, each bank is required to maintain a minimum stake. This provision aims to incentivize thorough due diligence before extending loans.

While the RBI’s intentions are geared towards enhancing financial stability, lenders have expressed apprehension over several aspects of the proposed regulations. Banks fear that the increased provisioning requirements could erode profits derived from project finance, impacting their bottom line. Stricter regulations may lead to higher borrowing costs for infrastructure companies, potentially stalling growth in this critical sector. Some lenders may be deterred from engaging in project finance altogether if the proposed rules are implemented without revision. At present, the RBI is soliciting feedback on the draft guidelines until mid-June. Banks are expected to lobby against the regulations, advocating for revisions to address their concerns while ensuring the financial viability of infrastructure projects.

The RBI’s proposed regulations underscore its commitment to fostering financial stability. However, the outcome hinges on whether the framework will strike a delicate balance between stability and growth in India’s infrastructure landscape. As stakeholders engage in discussions, the trajectory of infrastructure financing in the country will be closely watched to gauge its broader economic implications.


  1. Economic Times – What’s the new RBI proposal giving cold sweats to lenders?
  2. Economic Times – Will RBI’s draft guidelines on project financing tighten infra funding?
  3. The Hindu Business Line – Draft project finance norms: Finmin may soon take up infra lenders’ concerns with RBI
  4. Image by vectorjuice on Freepik

Greenvissage Explains, Can inheritance tax reduce inequality or will it be an economic blunder?

In a world marked by staggering wealth disparities, the debate over inheritance tax has ignited fervent discussions on the role of taxation in shaping societal equality and economic growth. Advocates argue that it offers a pathway to mitigate wealth concentration among the affluent, while detractors caution against its potential adverse effects on entrepreneurship and economic dynamism. As nations grapple with these diverging viewpoints, it becomes imperative to dissect the nuanced implications of inheritance tax policies within the context of their socio-economic landscapes.

Proponents of inheritance tax ground their argument in principles of equity and social justice. They contend that allowing vast fortunes to be passed down from one generation to the next perpetuates a cycle of privilege, further entrenching inequality. By imposing taxes on inherited wealth, governments can redirect resources towards addressing pressing social needs and fostering a more level playing field for all citizens. Moreover, inheritance tax advocates emphasize the democratic imperative of curbing excessive concentration of economic power, thereby safeguarding the principles of equal opportunity and civic participation. However, the implementation of inheritance tax is not without its challenges and criticisms. One of the primary concerns raised by opponents is the potential burden it places on the middle class. Without careful calibration, inheritance tax policies could inadvertently penalize hardworking individuals who have amassed modest assets through years of toil and prudence. Moreover, there is apprehension that high tax rates may dampen entrepreneurial spirit and investment incentives, leading to capital flight and stifling economic growth. Additionally, the complexity of assessing inherited assets and the possibility of tax evasion pose formidable administrative hurdles, casting doubt on the feasibility and efficacy of such measures.

Examining international experiences with inheritance tax offers valuable insights into its potential impacts and limitations. Countries like Japan and France have successfully implemented inheritance tax regimes, albeit with varying rates and exemptions. While these policies have contributed to wealth redistribution, they have also encountered challenges such as tax evasion and administrative inefficiencies. Conversely, the United States’ experience demonstrates the contentious nature of inheritance tax, with ongoing debates over its economic rationale and fairness. As nations deliberate over the merits of inheritance tax, finding a balanced approach is paramount. Any policy intervention must strike a delicate equilibrium between promoting equity and fostering economic vitality. This necessitates robust safeguards to shield the middle class from undue tax burdens while ensuring that wealth redistribution measures effectively target entrenched disparities. Moreover, enhancing tax compliance mechanisms and streamlining administrative processes can bolster the efficacy of inheritance tax regimes, bolstering revenue generation without stifling economic dynamism.

The discourse surrounding inheritance tax encapsulates broader questions about the role of taxation in shaping societal values and economic outcomes. While advocates champion it as a tool for fostering equity and social cohesion, sceptics caution against its potential unintended consequences. Ultimately, the path forward lies in navigating these complexities with pragmatism and foresight, crafting policies that balance the imperatives of justice and prosperity in an ever-evolving global landscape. As nations chart their courses, the debate over inheritance tax serves as a poignant reminder of the enduring quest for a fairer and more inclusive society.


  1. The Business Standard – Inheritance tax: A good idea, not so easy to implement
  2. The Hindu – An inheritance tax will help reduce inequality
  3. The Indian Express – Inheritance tax: An economic blunder
  4. Image by storyset on Freepik

Greenvissage explains, Are the Indian Government’s sugarcane subsidies fair and remunerative?

Recent allegations by the US and Australia against India regarding its sugarcane subsidies have brought to light a contentious issue in international trade. The accusations revolve around India’s purported violation of the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), raising questions about fair trade practices and the effectiveness of global trade regulations. The AoA, established during the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1995, aims to foster transparent market access and promote a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system. It delineates rules applicable to all WTO members, including the reduction of domestic support, ensuring market access, and regulating export subsidies.

The crux of the allegations against India lies in its domestic support measures, particularly concerning sugarcane subsidies. The US and Australia argue that India’s subsidies for sugarcane production far exceed the limits set by the AoA, with Market Price Support (MPS) constituting over 90% of the value of sugar production annually, well beyond the permitted 10%. India has contested these allegations, asserting that the calculations made by the accusers are flawed. India argues that the analysis fails to account for whether sugarcane was delivered to sugar mills for processing, as stipulated by the Sugarcane (Control) Order. Furthermore, India’s appeal against a previous WTO ruling demonstrates its commitment to challenging perceived injustices within the global trade framework.

The dispute resolution process within the WTO faces significant challenges, notably the inactive state of the WTO’s Appellate Body. Without a functioning Appellate Body, the resolution of disputes is delayed, prolonging uncertainty and potentially hindering the enforcement of WTO regulations. Moreover, the complexity of international trade dynamics exacerbates the difficulties in achieving consensus among member countries. The allegations against India’s sugarcane subsidies underscore the complexities inherent in regulating global agricultural trade. Beyond the specific case, this dispute highlights broader issues regarding compliance with WTO standards and the efficacy of dispute resolution mechanisms. As international trade continues to evolve, addressing these challenges will be crucial in fostering a fair and equitable trading environment for all nations involved. In essence, the current standoff between the US, Australia, and India serves as a poignant reminder of the intricacies and tensions inherent in international trade relations, urging stakeholders to reevaluate existing frameworks and work towards more effective and equitable solutions.


  1. Economic Times – India offered sugarcane sop vastly above WTO limits: US and Australia
  2. The Hindu Business Line – India’s sugarcane subsidy breaches WTO norms, allege US & Australia
  3. The Hindu – Centre increases Fair and Remunerative Prices of sugarcane
  4. Image by Freepik

Greenvissage explains, How does RBI’s new directives on currency derivatives affect Indian markets?

A recent directive from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) regarding exchange-traded currency derivatives has sent tremors through India’s financial markets. The mandate, effective from April 5th, requires proprietary traders and retail investors to demonstrate currency exposure to participate in currency derivatives segments provided by exchanges such as the NSE and the BSE. This move has sparked concerns among brokers and traders, who fear it could significantly impact market liquidity and activity. The RBI circular stipulates that participants must demonstrate contracted or prospective currency exposure to engage in currency derivatives trading. This marks a departure from the previous practice where traders could speculate on currency futures contracts without establishing underlying exposure. The new regulation aims to bring transparency and accountability to currency trading activities, aligning with the RBI’s broader foreign exchange management policy.

Brokers and proprietary traders, who have historically utilized currency derivatives for speculation, are apprehensive about the implications of the new rule. They fear that requiring contracted exposure will deter retail participants and traders, leading to a drain in market liquidity. This concern is compounded by the fact that the clarification of the rule came relatively close to its implementation date, catching many market participants off guard. The implementation of the directive is expected to reshape the landscape of India’s currency derivatives market. Market experts predict a significant reduction in trading volumes, with estimates suggesting that up to 70% of trading activity could dry up. This decline is attributed to the exclusion of individual traders and speculators, who traditionally contribute a substantial portion of market liquidity.

While the RBI’s directive aims to enhance market integrity and stability, critics argue that it may inadvertently stifle market activity. The ambiguity surrounding the interpretation of the rule has raised concerns about its practical implementation and enforcement. Some industry stakeholders advocate for a more balanced approach, suggesting adjustments to the USD 100 million limit or clearer guidelines to mitigate market disruptions.

As the market adapts to the new regulatory framework, the true impact of the directive on currency derivatives trading will become evident. Market participants, including brokers, traders, and exchanges, will need to navigate the evolving regulatory landscape while maintaining market competitiveness and liquidity. Clarity from regulatory authorities and ongoing dialogue between stakeholders will be essential in addressing concerns and ensuring the continued vibrancy of India’s currency derivatives market. The RBI’s directive on currency derivatives trading represents a significant regulatory shift aimed at enhancing transparency and accountability in India’s financial markets. While the measure is intended to promote market integrity, its implementation has raised concerns among market participants regarding its potential impact on liquidity and trading activity. As the market adjusts to the new regulatory framework, collaboration between regulators, exchanges, and market participants will be crucial in navigating the evolving landscape of currency derivatives trading in India.


  1. Bloomberg – Popular FX Derivatives Market Faces Crushing Blow in India
  2. Live Mint – New RBI rule raises alarms among currency derivatives traders
  3. Image by Freepik